Consciousness and the Universe: Quantum Physics, Evolution, Brain & Mind

by: Sir Roger Penrose, Stuart Hameroff, M.D., and Subhash Kak, Ph. D. read in 2012

3 "We conclude that consciousness plays an intrinsic role in the universe."
4 "Three general possibilities regarding the origin and place of consciousness in the universe have been commonly expressed.
(A) Consciousness...arose as a natural evolutionary consequence...Dennett...Wegner
(B) Consciousness is a quality that has always been in the universe...Kant
(C) Precursors of consciousness have always been in the universe; biology evolved a mechanism to convert conscious precursors to actual consciousness...Whitehead...Penrose-Hameroff"
5 "The conventional brain-as-computer view fails to account for:
. The 'hard problem'...
. Non-computable thought and understanding...
. Binding and synchrony
. Causal will
. Cognitive behaviors of single cell organisms."
5 "Microtubules as Biomolecular Computers"
6 "Along with actin and other cytoskeletal structures, microtubules establish cell shape, direct growth and organize function [sic] of cells including brain neurons."
7 "Microtubules also fuse side-by-side in doublets or triplets. Nine such doublets or triplets then align to form...cilia, flagella and centrioles, organelles responsible for locomotion, sensation and cell division. Either individually or in these larger arrays, microtubules are responsible for cellular and intra-cellular movements requiring intelligent spatiotemporal organization. Microtubules have a lattice structure comparable to computational systems. Could microtubules process information?" Seems like a clear 'Yes' to me.
8 "Proteins are largely heterogeneous arrays of amino acid residues, including both water-soluble polar and water-insoluble non-polar groups, the latter including phenylalanine and tryptophan"
8 "London forces in hydrophobic pockets of various neuronal proteins are the mechanisms by which anesthetic gases selectively erase consciousness"
13 "the Copenhagen viewpoint puts consciousness outside science, and does not seriously address the nature and physical role of superposition itself nor the question of how large quantum superpositions like Schrödinger's superposed live and dead cat (see below) might actually become one thing or another."
13 "The stream of consciousness of the observer is supposed somehow to 'split', so that there is one in each of [Everett's many] worlds"
14 "Like Einstein, [Schrödinger] regarded quantum mechanics as an incomplete theory, and his 'cat' provided an excellent example for emphasizing this incompleteness."
19 "Orch OR considers consciousness as a sequence of discrete OR events in concert with neuronal-level activities." This describes the world-line followed by The One, or PC
20 "gamma synchrony, Buddhist 'moments of experience', Whitehead 'occasions of experience', and our proposed Orch OR events might be viewed as corresponding tolerably well with one another."
25 "Perhaps the onset of Orch OR and consciousness with relatively slow and simple conscious moments, precipitated the accelerated evolution [at the early Cambrian evolutionary explosion 540 million years ago]."
26 "Hameroff (2009) developed the "Conscious pilot' model...[which] suggests consciousness literally moves around the brain in a mobile synchronized zone, within which isolated, entangled microtubules carry out quantum computations and Orch OR."
27 I think my explanation of Libet's half-second delay is much more straightforward than Penrose's: the conscious experience requires information transfer from brain to mind, where the actual experience takes place. There at least one round of information transfer from mind to brain is required for the body to formulate and generate a response to Libet's experimental input apparatus.
27 "[Libet's half-second delay] is interpreted in conventional neuroscience and philosophy (e.g. Dennett, 1991; Wegner, 2002) to imply that in such cases we respond non-consciously, on auto-pilot, and subsequently have only an illusion of conscious response." Close. Both the conscious experience and the illusion take place in the mind. The reporting of the experience takes place in the brain/body. The delay is a result of the brain-mind communication processes. The "illusion" is that the mind "thinks" that the experience occurs in the brain.
27 "The mainstream view is that consciousness is epiphenomenal illusion, occurring after-the-fact as a false impression of conscious control of behavior. We are merely 'helpless spectators' (Huxley, 1986)." The mainstream is wrong.
37 "quantum mechanics is an incomplete theory. Some completion is needed, and the DP proposal for an OR scheme underlying quantum theory's R-process would be a definite possibility. If such a scheme as this is indeed respected by Nature, then there is a fundamental additional ingredient to our presently understood laws of Nature which plays an important role at the Planck-scale level of space-time structure. The Orch OR proposal takes advantage of this, suggesting that conscious experience itself plays such a role in the operation of the laws of the universe."
45 "The Neuroanatomy of Free Will, Loss of Will, Against the Will, "Alien Hand" Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D."
75 "The Dissipative Brain and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics Walter J. Freeman, Ph.D., and Giuseppe Vitiello, Ph.D."
76 "Several mechanisms such as dendritic loop currents, propagated action potential, and diffusion of chemical transmitters have been proposed to explain the observed temporal precision and fineness of spatial texture of synchronized cortical activity. The documented rapid changes in synchronization over distances of mm to cm (Freeman, 2005) are incompatible with the mechanisms of long-range diffusion and the extracellular dendritic currents of the ECoG, which are much too weak. The length of most axons in cortex is a small fraction of the observed distances of long-range correlation, which cannot easily be explained even by the presence of relatively few very long axons creating small world effects"
76 "the brain appears to be a macroscopic quantum system"
77 "Here is the dilemma. Nerve impulses are transmitted from cell to cell through definite intercellular connections. Yet all behaviour seems to be determined by masses of excitation....What sort of nervous organization might be capable of responding to a pattern of excitation without limited specialized paths of conduction? The problem is almost universal in the activities of the nervous system" This suggests that the appearances of proposed "antenna" circuitry, connecting the brain to an external mind, are spread throughout the brain.
77 "spontaneous breakdown of symmetry (SBS)"
77 A description of the difference between Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM)
77 "[In QFT] there are many possible "physically different worlds" in which the same basic dynamics may manifest itself."
78 "The order parameter expresses in a highly non-linear way the microscopic behaviour of the myriads of elementary constituents of the system. The order parameter thus emerges as a classical field and marks the transition from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic scale. It is a measure of the complexity of the basic dynamics ruling the system, which cannot be reduced to or derived from the sum of the behaviours of the elementary components"
78 "In our model we conceive the order parameter as the density of the synaptic interactions at every point in the cortical neuropil, and we interpret the ECoG recorded at each point as an experimentally observable correlate of the neural order parameter."
78 "One central theorem in QFT states that SBS implies the existence of particles, called Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes or fields, that are massless and are bosons, i.e., they can be collected or condensed in the same physical state without any restriction on their number and, since they are massless, they can span the whole system volume and are therefore responsible for the occurrence of long-range correlations, namely of the ordering which thus is established in the system: Order appears as a result of the symmetry breakdown; order is lack of symmetry." Theorem?? This seems to be a strange definition of 'order'.
81 It seems to me that Freeman and Vitrello's entire analysis could be restated as a proposed explanation for the normal use of a cell phone with utter disregard for the communicant on the other end and the EM signal transmission between them. Some substitutions would have to be made such as cell phone for brain, electric currents for dendritic ionic currents and axonal action potentials, battery charge for glucose, voltage drops for glucose->glycogen->ATP and trans-membrane ionic gradient processes, etc. Deliberate big-time blinders evidently cause them to ignore the obvious mental experience that conscious-awareness occurs outside the brain.
83 "Conscious States Are a Crosstalk Mechanism for Only a Subset of Brain Processes Ezequiel Morsella, Ph.D., and Tiffany Jantz"
83 The abstract can be re-written to describe a cell-phone as above.
91 "It seems reasonable to conclude that consciousness can persist even when great quantities of the cortex are absent (Merker, 2007). The outstanding question is whether an identifiable form of consciousness can exist despite the non-participation of all cortical matter." Shouldn't NDE reports confirm this?
91 "intuitions regarding how the nervous system should work take a back seat to actual data revealing how it actually works, whether optimally or suboptimally. Thus, it is premature to propose that these states are 'epiphenomenal', that is, serving no function whatsoever. Until one understands the place of a given phenomenon in nature, and how it emerges from nature, one should not make the strong claim that the phenomenon be epiphenomenal. Second the current approach may identify what these states are for, but it sheds no light on why 'subjectivity' is associated with the tightly circumscribed, integrative function that these states appear subserve." [sic]
95 "Brain, Consciousness, and Causality Andrea Nani, Andrea E. Cavanna"
95 "It is argued that conscious states are likely to play essential causal roles in the scientific account of how the brain brings about the voluntary actions that contribute to form our deepest personal identities."
96 Various ancient views of the soul
101 "If those who champion the Copenhagen interpretation are right, then epiphenomenalism should be completely refuted. On the one hand, this approach gives a fundamental causal power to consciousness in understanding the universe; on the other hand, it has the serious shortcoming of putting consciousness outside the physical world." That is not a "shortcoming" in my view, rather it is an important clue.
101 "Therefore, if both the principle of the physical causal closure and the principle of exclusion discussed in the previous section are true, the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics does not provide a strong argument for refuting epiphenomenalism." It does if you admit that consciousness resides outside the physical world
105 "For the sake of the unity of science, it seems justified to take the physical causal closure for granted" Insufficient justification IMHO
108 "The Split Brain: Two Brains – Two Minds R. Joseph, Ph.D."
144 "Split-Brain Functioning in Children: The Ontology of Emotional Conflict"
148 "The two halve [sic] of the brain begin life functionally disconnected. Functional disconnection remains a fact of life, even in adulthood. This can give rise to any number of intra-psychic conflicts."
155 "Does 'Consciousness' Exist? William James, Ph.D."
156 "There is, I mean, no aboriginal stuff or quality of being, contrasted with that of which material objects are made, out of which our thoughts of them are made; but there is a function in experience which thoughts perform, and for the performance of which this quality of being is invoked. That function is knowing. 'Consciousness' is supposed necessary to explain the fact that things not only are, but get reported, are known."
156 "My thesis is that if we start with the supposition that there is only one primal stuff or material in the world, a stuff of which everything is composed, and if we call that stuff 'pure experience;, the knowing can easily be explained as a particular sort of relation towards one another into which portions of pure experience may enter. The relation itself is a part of pure experience; one if [sic] its 'terms' becomes the subject or bearer of the knowledge, the knower,...the other becomes the object known."
156 "For the thinkers I call new-Kantian,...[t]he subject-object distinction meanwhile is entirely different from that between mind and matter, from that between body and soul."
157 "To say that I am self-conscious, or conscious of putting forth volition, means only that certain contents, for which 'self' and 'effort of will' are the names, are not without witness as they occur." And exactly who or what, may I ask, is that "witness"?
157 "Thus for those belated drinkers at the Kantian spring, we should have to admit consciousness as an 'epistemological' necessity, even if we had no direct evidence of its being there." Most true
157 James commenting on G.E. Moore: "This supposes that the consciousness is one element, moment, factor – call it what you like -- of an experience of essentially dualistic inner constitution, from which, if you abstract the content, the consciousness will remain revealed to its own eye. Experience, at this rate, would be much like a paint of which the world pictures were made. Paint has a dual constitution, involving, as it does, a menstruum...(oil, size or what not) and a mass of content in the form of pigment suspended therein. We can get the pure menstruum by letting the pigment settle, and the pure pigment by pouring off the size or oil. We operate here by physical subtraction."
158 James uses the paint metaphor to explain how consciousness is simultaneously subjective and objective: "that dualism, I say, is still preserved in this account, but reinterpreted, so that, instead of being mysterious and elusive, it becomes verifiable and concrete. It is an affair of relations, it falls outside, not inside, the single experience considered, and can always be particularized and defined."
158 James' view as an extension of Locke's and Berkeley's
158 "begin with a perceptual experience, the 'presentation', so called, of a physical object, is just those self-same things which his mind, as we say, perceives; and the whole philosophy of perception from Democritus's [sic] time downwards has just been one long wrangle over the paradox that what is evidently one reality should be in two places at once, both in outer space and in a person's mind."
159 "The puzzle of how the one identical room can be in two places is at bottom just the puzzle of how one identical point can be on two lines. It can, if it be situated at their intersection; and similarly, if the 'pure experience' of the room were a place of intersection of two processes, which connected it with different groups of associates respectively, it could be counted twice over, as belonging to either group, and spioken of loosely as existing in two places, although it would remain all the time a numerically single thing." Yes! Exactly! And for this to be the case geometrically and topologically, an additional dimension must exist in order to provide a place for that second line. We can think of the former line as the groove in an LP record, and the second line as the stylus (Stylus Guy) using John's analogy.
160 "Self-diremption"??
166 "diremption"??
169 "The Stream of Consciousness William James, Ph.D."
170 "The Fundamental Fact. – The first and foremost concrete fact which everyone will affirm to belong to his inner experience is the fact that consciousness of some sort goes on. 'States of mind' succeed each other in him. If we could say in English 'it thinks', as we say 'it rains' or 'it blows,' we should be stating the fact most simply and with the minimum of assumption. As we cannot, we must simply say that thought goes on." In other words, Thought Happens.
170 "No thought even comes into direct sight of a thought in another personal consciousness than its own. Absolute insulation, irreducible pluralism, is the law. It seems as if the elementary psychic fact were not thought or this thought or that thought, but my thought, every thought being owned. Neither contemporaneity, nor proximity in space, nor similarity of quality and content are able to fuse thoughts together which are sundered by this barrier of belonging to different personal minds. The breaches between such thoughts are the most absolute breaches in nature."
171 "Thoughts connected as we feel them to be connected are what we mean by personal selves. The worst a psychology can do is so to interpret the nature of these selves as to rob them of their worth."
173 "A permanently existing 'Idea' which makes its appearance before the footlights of consciousness at periodical intervals is as mythological an entity as the Jack of Spades." Yet we have the incorrigible existence of the Mandelbrot Set somewhere.
173 "Within each personal consciousness, thought is sensibly continuous." See Julian Jaynes for a refutation of this assertion
173 "That even where there is a time-gap the consciousness after it feels as if it belonged together with the consciousness before it, as another part of the same self;" But this is not immediate, as for example upon awakening.
173 "That the changes from one moment to another in the quality of the consciousness are never absolutely abrupt." James has evidently never experienced a surprise rear-end collision
174 "Remembrance is like direct feeling; its object is suffused with a warmth and intimacy to which no object of mere conception ever attains.
174 "But whatever past states appear with those qualities must be admitted to receive the greeting of the present mental state, to be owned by it, and accepted as belonging together with it in a common self." Not necessarily. If Peter and Paul's selves were exchanged during the night, then in the morning Peter would be presented with the "warm" and intimate memory of Peter's past and likewise for Paul. The illusion of unbroken continuity would be as James describes it, but in reality there would be no such continuity. Waking up in a strange bed, like in a hotel, you can feel the acquisition of memories of "your" past that takes several milliseconds or even seconds.
175 "it would be difficult to find in the actual concrete consciousness or man a feeling so limited to the present as not to have an inkling of anything that went before." Difficult, but not impossible. A surprise rear-end collision produces this exact experience.
176 Sensationalism and Intellectualism
176 "from our point of view both Intellectualists and Sensationalists are wrong. If there be such things as feelings at all, then so surely as relations between objects exist in rerum naturâ [sic], so surely, and more surely, do feelings exist to which these relations are known." I think the key word here is "known"
186 "What Does Consciousness Do? Howard Shevrin, Ph.D.
196 "A Mindful Alternative to the Mind/Body Problem Ellen Langer, Ph.D.
203 "Consciousness: Solvable and Unsolvable Problems Prof. Dr. Etienne Vermeersch
210 "Decoding the Chalmers Hard Problem of Consciousness: Qualia of the Molecular Biology of Creativity and Thought Ernest Lawrence Rossi & Kathryn Lane Rossi
213 eRNA
214 "Consciousness is a novelty-seeking modality that evolved as a sensitive detector or qualia to facilitate rapid and creative adaptation to environments manifesting constant change with natural variation and selection" Do you mean "a sensitive detector of qualia"? This would make sense as a description of a conscious mind. And it would leave the mind as mysterious as ever. The function of the mind is to detect and notice qualia and to react via the exercise of free will. Nothing new is added here. If you really meant "a sensitive detector or qualia", then you have redefined 'qualia' and obscured The Hard Problem. The mind as a function operating outside the brain is still the best logical explanation.
215 "Central to the genetic programming of biological systems is the ability to process information within cellular networks and link this information to new cellular behaviors, in essence rewiring network topologies...RNA is a promising substrate for platforms to interface with cellular networks because of the versatile sensing and actuation functions that RNA can exhibit and the ease with which RNA structures can be designed. RNA-based sensing-actuation devices have been engineered that respond predominantly to externally [environmental] applied small-molecule and nucleic acid inputs and control gene expression through diverse mechanisms." The "devices have been engineered" by conscious human experimenters, but exactly who or what "designed" the RNA structures? Since these adaptive changes are so rapid compared with the life-cycle of the organism, it can't be due to classical Darwinian Evolution. Are you suggesting a similar natural selection process at this small scale and high frequency? Quite a stretch.
215 "We propose that this adaptive coordination between the sensing (qualia), signaling, and catalytic self-replicating properties of RNA (with A-U, G-C base pairings) was the original bridge over the explanatory gap between the molecular-genomic qualia and functions of life and consciousness." It doesn't close the explanatory gap, IMHO, as explained above.
215 "A major surprise arising from genome-wide analyses has been the observation that the majority of the genome is transcribed, generating noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs)." So it's not "junk DNA" at all? Duh!
215 "Together, the ncRNA sensor code appears to be a robust and critical strategy underlying a wide variety of gene regulatory programs." Now how does a bunch of code become a "strategy" without a coder or programmer? Hmmmm????
215 "If we are willing to take a philosophical, linguistic and quantum leap from "ncRNA sensor code" to "ncRNA qualia code" such research could be another "extra ingredient" in our evolving theory of the origin of life and the qualia consciousness via the dynamics of RNA/DNA coordination during transcription and translation." Yes, but, that "linguistic leap" pushes the qualia question under the rug.
215 "Gilbert (1986) first introduced the concept of "RNA world""
217 The Ultradian Healing/Stress Response – take a break every 90-120 minutes.
220 Ribeiro's theory of sleep and dreams. Risk/benefit seems too high to me.
228 "Protophenomena and their Physical Correlates Bruce J. MacLennan, Ph.D.
229 The Hard Problem
232 "...the possibility of robot consciousness depends on what sort of physical processes have accompanying protophenomena, and in particular on whether protophenomena accompany nonbiological (or even non-neural) processes. Hence, identifying what physical processes support protophenomena is fundamental to determining whether robots could have phenomenal consciousness" Translating this into the Mars Rover analogy, we get protophenomena=information transmitted to/from JPL. The physical processes supporting protophenomena are the EM radiation, the antennas and their gain, the transmitting and receiving circuitry in the rover's radios, and the computer input and output routines. The protophenomena collect and aggregate in JPL to achieve conscious awareness and behaviour of the rover. The consciousness itself occurs only in the minds of the JPL scientists.
232 Hypotheses for neural correlates of protophenomena. All of them can be seen as fatally inadequate when comparing them using the rover analogy.
232 "Seeing the variety of possible correlative activities in a neuron raises the question of why some physical processes should have protophenomena but not others." Simple: some communicate with the mind and some don't. (mind is not equal to brain)
233 Criticism of Chalmers' use of Shannon's notion of information: a difference that makes a difference
233 "...even the simplest life forms use information, which is mathematically equivalent to negative entropy, to improve their ability to survive."
233 "...information theory has a problematic relation to thermodynamics through the shared concept of entropy"
233 "Thus entropy, with ties to organization and survival on one side and to information and intelligence on the other, is fundamental to understanding "differences that make a difference," and to explicating the physical information spaces that correspond to protophenomena." Exactly!! And the fundamental misunderstanding arises from ignoring the elephant in the room. The elephant being exactly to whom or what does the difference make a difference? If you posit such a being, call it mind, God, JPL scientist, or whatever, then it makes sense.
234 "Can Chalmers' notions of physical information spaces and "differences that make a difference" be explained in terms of the thermodynamics of order and information?" Not without acknowledging the elephant, IMHO.
234 "What does this theory suggest are the most plausible physical activity sites associated with protophenomena?" IMHO it won't suggest the correct sites without considering the possibility of an external data link.
234 "Which psychophysical experiments could discriminate among hypotheses concerning the physical processes that could be the correlative activity of protophenomena?" It would be a mistake to rule out parapsychological experiments.
234 "We are formalizing the idea that information processes in neurons serve functions that can be explained in terms of thermodynamics (in particular the Maximum Entropy Production Principle). To the extent that this analysis is independent of the specifics of neural cell biology, it will suggest (but not establish) physical pre-conditions for non-biological phenomenal consciousness."
234 "Aside from the obvious connection between the brain and consciousness, the neuron is the primary agent making "decisions that make a difference."" Again, to whom or what?
234 "This analysis can be carried to a deeper level, focusing on those processes that mediate the connection of a cell (and in particular a neuron) to its environment: receptor binding and gated ion channels." It would be carried deeper yet by considering a larger environment e.g. all of Penrose's worlds
235 "Roughly speaking, the [experimental] goal is to identify one or more neurons whose individual activity can be determined reliably through conscious experience."
236 "Within a protophenomenon's neural locus there are several candidates for correlative activity (e.g., neurotransmitter flux across the synapse, neurotransmitter receptor activity, dendritic spine potential, somatic potential, ion flux at the axon hillock)." I think this list of candidates should be re-considered and enlarged.
236 "It is also likely that conscious state, content, and process (Pribram, 2004) have different kinds of correlative activity, would be another topic for investigation." Yes. I suggest you work on that.
240 "The Spread Mind: Seven Steps to Situated Consciousness Riccardo Manzotti"
240 "...the Spread Mind outlines a counterintuitive yet logically possible hypothesis – namely that the physical underpinnings of consciousness may comprehend a part of the environment and thus may extend in space and time beyond the skin."
241 "Christof Koch wrote that "How brain processes translate to consciousness is one of the greatest unsolved questions in science. The scientific method [...] has utterly failed to satisfactorily explain how subjective experience is created" (Koch 2007). Such a lack of a physical explanation might be a consequence of one or more ill chosen assumptions as to the nature of the physical world"
242 "In a nutshell, I will consider whether it makes any sense to suppose that the physical underpinnings of consciousness are temporally and spatially larger than the subject body. Is consciousness situated in the environment?" Wonderful! I have been waiting 50 years for someone to take this position.
245 "I will try to show that conscious experience may correspond to a physical process akin to the rainbow."
248 "It might be argued that everything that is perceived is a whole constituted by a process (Manzotti 2009) – a whole that is in the external world in the same sense in which an object is in the external world; yet a whole whose existence is constituted by the completion of the process ending in the beholder's brain. Again, let me stress that this is not idealism. It is a very physical framework."
250 "The world we have an experience of, is made of processes, not of static entities that we observe as such. Rainbows, faces, chairs, and the like are processes that happen in the way they do because of the possibilities that our body offers to them. Let me stress again that this is not, by any means, a profession of idealism. I am not saying that the body (not to say the brain or the mind) creates its world. I am saying that the world we experience is made of physical processes whose occurrence require both the environment and the perceiver's body."
250 "...we don't need any longer to assume a separation between the representation and what it represents. The process is, at the same time, the object of representation, the vehicle of that representation as well as the process constituting the subject."
251 "My representation of the rainbow (when I look at it) is not something stemming out of the neural activity taking place in my brain. My representation of the rainbow is literally the rainbow. It is the process taking place from the cloud and concluding into my visual cortex."
253 "...conscious experience might be identical with the process-unity resulting from a collection of scattered events. Thus, is phenomenal experience of a room different from the room? Yes and no. The room, without being engaged with a perceptual system of a conscious being, is a scattered collection of relatively simpler processes. When you look at it, you allow the occurrence of a new and much larger process that, in turn, permit to a significant subset of those processes to act as a whole. This process would not have happened without your body in that room. The room we have an experience of is that process too. Is there any true difference between your conscious experience of a room and that process? They occur at the same time, in the same place. Furthermore, they put together the same aspects of reality (the books, the computer screen, the shelf, the flower in the vase, and the like). Why should we consider you're your experience and the room you have an experience of are ontologically and numerically different?" This is a good analysis and conclusion. But I think it still misses the point and does not explain The Hard Problem. The process he describes could act in a machine or a zombie. What is missing is knowing, or awareness in the knowing sense.
262 "What Consciousness Does: A Quantum Cosmology of Mind Chris J.S. Clarke, Ph.D.
263 ""Consciousness" the precondition for our being able to do or know anything."
263 Quid-consciousness and Qualis-consciousness
267 "The combined work of Hartle and Page...brings in elements such as agency and meaning. Consciousness, on this view "does something", but by selection rather than modification, and in a way which is compatible with and dependent on the known laws of physics."
268 "This model raises for the first time the possibility of a rigorous theoretical framework for parapsychology (Clarke, 2008) without which that subject remains only a semi-science."
273 "The Stream of Thought. William James, Ph.D." This article was published by James in 1890. The earlier one [p. 169] was \published in 1892. One of them is obviously a re-write of the other. The (1892) article deals with consciousness in the way that the (1890) deals with thought as a component or part of consciousness.
274 "4) It always appears to deal with objects independent of itself." This "character of consciousness" was omitted from his list of characters of consciousness in the (1892) version. That seems to imply that to James, introspection is legitimate
275 Secondary selves
275 Inspissation – thickening or condensing.
276 James expresses his negative views of mediums and spiritualists. Have T. comment on pages 275 & 276.
304 "Sameness in a multiplicity of objective appearances is thus the basis of our belief in realities outside of thought."
306 "If, in addition to thinking O, I also think that I exist and that I know O, well and good; I then know one more thing, a fact about of which I previously was unmindful." This would be the fundamental mechanism of cosmogony.
320 Mozart's description of composing.
322 "Sir Wm. Hamilton, Discussions, p. 47: "We know, and we know that we know, - these propositions, logically distinct, are really identical; each implies the other...Whatever variety of materials may exist within reach of my mind, I can become conscious of them only by recognizing them as mine. . . . Relation to the conscious self is thus the permanent and universal feature which every state of consciousness as such must exhibit." T.H. Green, Introduction to Hume, p. 12: "A consciousness by the man...of himself, in negative relation to the thing that is his object, and this consciousness must be taken to go along with the perceptive act itself. Not less than this indeed can be involved in any act that is to be the beginning of knowledge at all. It is the minimum of possible thought or intelligence."" I'm not so sure about this. Think about it.
324 "Origins of Thought: Consciousness, Language, Egocentric Speech and the Multiplicity of Mind Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D."
353 "Non-Locality, Cognition, and Cosmic Structures Paul Bernstein, Ph.D, Rudolph Schild, Ph.D, Metod Saniga, RNDr, Petr Pracna RNDr, Luboš Neslušian RNDr & Kala Perkins, MSci" T. needs to read this.
355 "Seeking explanations for such instances of non-local information coordination, some scientists propose the possibility that additional dimensions might underlie the complexities of our Universe. But string theories that have proposed other dimensions in detail seem so far not to explain the nature of these phenomena." Probably because they curl them up.
356 "...information modulated magnetic currents then can radiate outwards at speeds faster than light (up to c²), and can be sensed – and their content can be read – by other human minds."
358 "...there might be advantages to adopting 8-dimensional complex space-time into fundamental theory."
361 "...Frequency spacetime might be the more fundamental, and even in some sense the "pre-existing" or "sourcing" ground of, our conventional spacetime:" Interesting idea. It is consistent with accounts in the Nag Hamadi Library and with NDE reports of a primordial and fundamental light. It could also shed light (so to speak) on the Aeon and Raw Energy of Beon Theory.
362 "Neslušan concludes from his elaboration of the Maxwell wave equations that, "Mathematically unifying the fundamental interactions of the Universe seems possible if we assume that at its deepest level the universe consists of elementary sources that generate waves.""
362 "In Schild's words: "What's necessary is to grasp the fact that every point in our conventional (x,y,z,t) spacetime has a superposition of four more dimensions in which quanta of something else (information) exist at all times.""
364 "He [Schild] also suggests that "dark energy" might be characteristic of Frequency spacetime, and that such energy might be increasing over time due to the growing number of living organisms in the Universe. He further notes that empirical observations already made of dark energy traveling faster than the speed of light (Salart 2008) accord with Tiller's view of Frequency space-time allowing for magnetic currents to travel at speeds up to c²."
364 Review and compare paragraph c. with T's notion of time.
365 "Paul Dirac also critiqued renormalization with these words: "Neglecting an arbitrary way is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it is small --- not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it.""
370 "Detecting Mass Consciousness: Effects of Globally Shared Attention and Emotion Roger Nelson, Ph.D."
389 "Cosmological Implications of Near-Death Experiences Bruce Greyson"
390 "...the mind may only be dependent on the brain much as a radio transmission is dependent upon a receiver and broadcast unit." Most true.
391 "...profound subjective experiences that many people report when they are near death pose challenges to the materialist mind-brain production model"
393 " is not credible to suppose that NDEs occurring under conditions of general anesthesia, let alone cardiac arrest, can be accounted for in terms of some hypothetical residual capacity of the brain to process and store complex information under those conditions."
398 "...the development of post-classical physics over the past century offers empirical support for a new scientific cosmology in which consciousness is a fundamental element"
403 "Consciousness – What Is It? L. Dossey, B. Greyson, P.A. Sturrock, and J.B. Tucker"
403 OBE, NDE, reincarnation, ESP, Healing at a distance
413 "If consciousness is not simply a brain activity, what might it be? One approach is to modify the "brain" concept, and to hypothesize that consciousness is the activity of some other entity. For this purpose, we could reactivate (one might say "resuscitate") the dated and little-used term "soul."
413 "The philosopher Jerry A. Fodor expressed a similar opinion, saying, "Nobody has the slightest idea how anything material could be conscious. Nobody even knows what it would be like to have the slightest idea about how anything material 17/26 [sic] could be conscious. So much for the philosophy of consciousness." Well, I have a "slight idea" and I know what it is like to have this idea. It is like the discovery of how radio works and the role it can play in remote-controlled devices. Examples are now ubiquitous with RC helicopters and VR games. Here, the as-yet-to-be-explained conscious human interacts with the inanimate helicopter/VR objects, experiences perception from the POV of the inanimate object, and influences its behavior using the as-yet-to-be-understood human faculty of free will. This seems to me to be a perfectly reasonable model which should be considered and investigated. It suggests the "slight idea" that consciousness does not inhere in the material structure of the brain but instead in some as-yet-to-be-identified driver, resident in some non-material place. The "driver" has the ability to experience vicariously what it is like to be that material structure by perceiving sensory input supplied by it and by controlling its actions to some extent via mechanisms analogous to those used to control an RC helicopter. What's the difficulty here?
415 "(Schrödinger, 1983): "To divide or multiply consciousness is something meaningless. In all the world, there is no kind of framework within which we can find consciousness in the plural; this is simply something we construct because of the spatio-temporal plurality of individuals, but it is a false construction.... The category of number, of whole and of parts are then simply not applicable to it; the most adequate...expression of the situation is this: the self-consciousness of the individual members are numerically identical with [one an]other and with that Self which they may be said to form at a higher level."
415 "He also remarked (Schrödinger 1969): "Mind is by its very nature a singulare tantum. I should say: the overall number of minds is just one.""
416 "...phenomena such as those discussed in this article, together with other anomalous phenomena, may require a revision of our current "Model of Reality," and that our revised model may involve the concept of hyperspace *Sturrock, 2009)." Indeed!
421 "Consciousness, Dissociation and Self-Consciousness Ellert R.S. Nijenhuis, Ph.D."
438 "Science and the Self-Referentiality of Consciousness Michel Bitbol, Ph.D., and Pier-Luigi Luisi, Ph.D."
443 "Trying to mean consciousness is self-defeating, since what is allegedly meant is not beyond the very act of meaning it. It is radically self-referring."
443 "But classical physics has little to say about the very existence of an experience of colour and even less about its lived quality." This occurred to me as a young teenager and has dismayed me ever since.
455 "Near Death Experiences and the 5th Dimensional Spatio-Temporal Perspective Jean-Pierre Jourdan, M.D."
469 The Cosmic Joke
472 "A Spatialized Time"
476 Kaluza, Klein, and curled up dimensions
485 "In the Borderlands of Consciousness and Dreams: Spirituality Rising from Consciousness in Crises Kevin R. Nelson, MD" Mumbo Jumbo
487 "There are three mental states possible for the brain: waking, REM sleep and non-REM sleep." I think he left out hypnotic trance and the flatlined state during some NDEs
488 "Even in the controlled safety of the laboratory, the syncope experience can be nearly indistinguishable from near-death (Lempert et al., 1994a), which reinforces the finding that only half of those experiencing near-death are actually medically threatened"
488 "Upwards of one third of people faint within their lifetime, often while feeling endangered, and this makes syncope potentially fertile ground for spiritual experience." non sequitur - IMHO
490 "Feelings of fear, hypoxia, hypotension and hypercarbia, often present during near-death, all vigorously stimulate the LC, increasing its tonic discharge rates" Isn't this causally backward? If our purpose is to understand and explain consciousness, then feelings are part of what we want to explain. And if brain activity generates consciousness, then something like LC should stimulate feelings, not the other way around.
491 "It is believed all mammals enter REM consciousness, which testifies to this conscious state's importance. Yet the biologic purpose of dreams remains elusive." And so much more for sleep itself. "REM consciousness" is an oxymoron IMHO.
504 "Altered Consciousness Is A Many Splendored Thing Etzel Cardeña, Ph. D."
507 "A visitor from another planet would surely find it puzzling that humans spend about one third of their lives in sleep states yet pay little attention to them."
516 "Dreams and Hallucinations: Lifting the Veil to Multiple Perceptual Realities Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D."
517 Dream of a tsunami in a previous life
520 "Abraham Lincoln Dreams of His Assassination"
522 "It may also be that the past, present, and future are a simultaneity but which are located in different regions of space-time, within the 4th dimension. And it may be that it is the mind which journeys along the dimension, journeying across space-time and encountering what is experienced as the ever present now which slips away as quickly as it is grasped, only to be replaced by a future which becomes the now—just as a DVD or CD contains the beginning and ending of a film or song simultaneously, but which is encoded in different locations within the medium." Yes!
535 Account of LSD inducing microscopic 4-D vision.
535 "And I was able to see through the Santa Cruz mountains to what was on the otherside [sic]: the ocean and a jet plane and then the jet flew over the top of the mountain. And no, I do not think I was hallucinating per se." Contrary to the text, this cannot be explained by the inhibition or blocking of sensory input or data. Sensory data (vision) is carried by light which could not have gone through the mountains. This suggests that the info. was gathered from another perspective such as high altitude 3D or more likely, from 4D outside our 3D manifold. This data then somehow entered the brain via some non-sensory pathway.
553 "Cosmological Foundations of Consciousness Chris King, Ph.D."
558 "It has been reported that as early as 3.3 billion years ago there was a massive genetic expansion, which may have contributed to the genes common to all forms of life (David and Alm 2010) facilitated by high levels of horizontal gene transfer, promoted by viruses" Such "massive expansions" don't seem consistent with the exclusive mechanism of Darwinian selection. Deliberate design seems indicated or suggested.
558 "This picture of bit rates coincides closely with the Archaean expansion scenario and suggests that evolution has been a two-phase process of genetic algorithm super-computation, which arrived at a global solution to the notoriously intractable protein-folding problems of the central metabolic and electro-chemical pathways, which are later capitalized on by eukaryotes and metazoa." This suggestion seems hollow since we are still a long way from understanding that "global solution".
559 "The evolutionary key to sentient consciousness may lie in the survival advantage it could provide in anticipating threats and strategic opportunities. Since key genes for the brain evolved even before the Cambrian radiation (Wickramasinghe 2011), the key to the emergence of conscious sentience may be sourced in the evolution of excitable single cells. Chaotic excitation provides a eukaryote cell with a generalized quantum sense organ." This is an implausible stretch. "[A]nticipating threats" and recognizing "strategic opportunities" require an awareness of future states which this mechanism does not explain. If, however, the seat of consciousness, and its progenitors, reside outside the brain in a higher-dimensional space, then this type of future projection as well as deliberately designed electro-chemical mechanisms are easily explained and understood
562 "No single cortical area has been identified as the seat of consciousness"
562 Here is an interesting and detailed speculative explanation of brain processes without addressing the "Hard Problem". A similar type of explanation could describe all the processes going on within the on-board computers of a Mars rover and its related systems while completely ignoring the scientists at JPL and the EM link between the rover and the scientists. It ignores the hard problem.
565 "The evolutionary argument is a potent discriminator of models of consciousness." Not in my book unless the candidate models are inadequate.
575 "Consciouisness: A Direct Link to Life's Origins? A.N. Mitra and G. Mitra-Delmotte, Ph.D."
575 Good historical sketch of the development of mind/body ideas from ancients through Descartes, Newton, Bohr, Einstein, et al.
576 David Bohm's thesis. His notion of projection suggests additional dimensions to me.
577 "Bohm also illustrates the idea of 'meaning' through the example of listening to music as a sequence of overlapping moments...Consciousness is thus seen to be intimately related to the concept of 'time' – not merely a 'duration', in the sense of classical mechanics, but an active ingredient bearing on consciousness that reveals a world of continuous and unfolding events"
577 Quantum coherence. This description of coherent oscillation suggests an analog for EM radiation in my "radio" model of mind and brain.
585 "Evolution of Modern Human Consciousness Ian Tattersall"
585 "Humans are symbolic,...the unique human cognitive style was not gradually acquired"
595 "Evolution's Gift: Subjectivity and the Phenomenal World Arnold Trehub"
606 "Intention and Attention in Consciousness Dynamics and Evolution Hans Liljenström"
615 "If intentionality is a fundamental aspect of consciousness, and if intentionality corresponds to our sense of free will, it is difficult to fit it within the framework of current science, which is based on deterministic laws and chance. In my view, consciousness provides a freedom beyond the indeterminism of quantum physics or the determinism of classical physics." "Intentionality" seems to be Rosenberg's "effective principle", "attention" seems to be his "receptive principle".
615 "...consciusness can be regarded as a driving force in nature."
618 "The Ecological Cosmology of Consciousness Tom Lombardo, Ph. D."
618 "Ecological reciprocalism posits that ... the physical universe and consciousness are interdependent realities, and it is this reciprocity that is the fundamental ontological truth and mystery of consciousness."
619 "What is consciousness? Is it energy, spirit, an activity or process, a form of illumination, the interiority of all being, an ethereal or refined kind of substance, or something else?" I like the "interiority of all being".
621 Ecological reciprocalism contrasted with interactive dualism.
622 "I propose a symmetry or balance of the initial four puzzles: What is consciousness? What is the physical world? How does consciousness depend upon the physical world? And how does the physical world depend on consciousness? The fundamental puzzle, subsuming these four would be: What is it about consciousness and the physical world such that they are interdependent with each other?" Applying Beon Theory to these questions from a primordial viewpoint we get: Consciousness is Aeon; the physical world is raw energy; consciousness depends on the physical world for information storage; the physical world depends on consciousness for structure; the need for reciprocal information exchange.
622 "The thesis of ecological reciprocalism can be made more precise: Consciousness is always embodied, relative to a point of view, surrounded and locally situated within the physical universe, and the meaningful manifestation of the physical universe is always an integrated and selective differentiation relative to an embodied consciousness." This thesis nicely describes my single helix of Penrose worlds.
622 His description of his theses works much better, IMHO, in the context of my single helix than in the context of human bodies in the physical world of science. There is too much unexplained complexity in the latter, Darwinian evolution notwithstanding
623 "The self may in fact be grounded in this proprioceptual awareness of the body and sense of distinctive point of view. The self is likely based on the conscious sense of identity, configured, distinguished, and localized within a physical and social environment." Yes, that's the customary view and definition of 'self': the mind/body pair. But as Schroedinger and Goedel have deduced, this view is inadequate.
623 "Thoughts and emotions are experienced as situated within an embodied consciousness, itself within the perceived ambient physical world, rather than in some second separate ontological realm or space." This can no longer be claimed considering NDE reports such as those of Eben Alexander.
624 "...physical realities produce specific structured energetic effects within the universe providing information about their existence and make-up, affording the possibility of being known."
631 "Evolution of Paleolithic Cosmology and Spiritual Consciousness, and the Temporal and Frontal Lobes Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D."
645 "It is the evolution of the temporal lobes, this "transmitter to god" which also explains why even primitive humanity likely believed in spirits, souls. and ghosts" Perhaps we should take this literally?
683 "Do Other Species Experience Spirituality? Kevin R. Nelson, MD"
687 "Prehistoric Astronomers? Ancient Knowledge Created by Modern Myth Emilia Pásztor, Dr"
699 "Evolution or Extinction of Neandertals: A Brief History Milford H. Wolpoff"
713 "The Evolution of Human Consciousness: Reflections on the Discovery of Mind and the Implications for the Materialist Darwinian Paradigm Martin Lockley"
717 "Thinking of course involves the ability to make abstract internal representations of the world, and around 5- 7 years, with the advent of what Piaget (1976) calls the Concrete Operations stage."
717-719 Excellent analysis of the origin of consciousness.
718 ""Homeric man" has three 'organs' – thymos (motion/emotion [(soul)]), psyche (life) and noos (perception) – regarded as functions, not as physical entities."
718 "Heraclitus (540-480 BCE) had used psyche to refer to the soul of a living person. Thus, arose the first distinction between the physical body and a radically different soul quality, which ever since has given us debates about mind-body duality."
718 Snell: ""Homeric man"...[has not] yet awakened to the fact that he possesses in his own soul the source of his powers... Thus, he does not regard himself as the source of his own decisions." So he must have thought of himself as a vehicle remotely operated and controlled by some conscious deliberate entity in another world. Could he have been right?
718 "Until he could do this he had not transplanted the external deity within himself as his own soul, and so the world could have little deep meaning." It seems to me that his world would have deeper meaning. To borrow from Wooldridge, "A man who thinks he is only a machine lives in a shallower world than a machine that thinks he is animated by a non-material soul. " The latter world must include this "other world" which harbors the soul.
719 "'It is almost an absurd prejudice to suppose that existence can be only physical ... We might well say, on the contrary, that physical existence is a mere inference, since we know of matter [only] in so far as we perceive psychic images mediated by the senses.' –Carl Jung (1958)"
719 "...from the much celebrated Nag Hammadi manuscripts: "the soul turned, at one time, toward matter: she fell in love with it, and, burning with desire to experience bodily pleasures, wishes no more to be separated from it. Thus the world was born. From that moment the soul forgot herself; she forgot her original dwelling, her true center, her everlasting life..." The reference seems goofy. Doresse seems reasonable, but Chwolsohn wrote a century before the Nag Hammadi texts were discovered.
720 "Vitaliano (2000) is cogent in stating that: 'dualism is the act of severance, cutting (con-scire) the world into seer and seen, knower and known ... with the occurrence of the primary dualism, man's awareness shifts from the non-dual universal consciousness to his physical body."
720 " seems the faculties of consciousness and language 'activate' or 'emerge' independent of any easily defined physical/anatomical changes. Thus, given the increasingly ambiguous meaning that modern physics gives to the concept of 'physical matter' it seems unlikely that explanations for the evolution of human consciousness will center on any strictly physical/material phenomena."
725 "Animals are Machines René Descartes"
731 "...speech is the only certain sign of thought hidden in a body."
732 "On the Hypothesis that Animals Are Automata, and Its History Thomas H. Huxley"
739 "Descartes ... imagined that the pineal body ...was the instrument through which the soul received impressions from, and communicated them to, the brain."
750 "We believe, in short, that [animals] are machines, one part of which (the nervous system) not only sets the rest in motion, and co-ordinates its movements in relation with changes in surrounding bodies, but is provided with special apparatus, the function of which is the calling into existence of those states of consciousness which are termed sensations, emotions, and ideas. I believe that this generally accepted view is the best expression of the facts at present known." But it doesn't say much until you describe that "special apparatus" and explain what you mean by "calling into existence".
752 Elegant and powerful use of a drum metaphor by Huxley to illustrate the problem of dogma inhibiting free inquiry.
753 "..logical consequences are the scarecrows of fools and the beacons of wise men. The only question which any wise man can ask himself, and which any honest man will ask himself, is whether a doctrine is true or false. Consequences will take care of themselves; at most their importance can only justify us in testing with extra care the reasoning process from which they result."
754 "Of all the senseless babble I have ever had occasion to read, the demonstrations of these philosophers who undertake to tell us all about the nature of God would be the worst, if they were not surpassed by the still greater absurdities of the philosophers who try to prove that there is no God."
756 "Give the automaton a soul which contemplates its movements, which believes itself to be the author of them, which has different volitions on the occasion of the different movements, and you will on this hypothesis construct a man.

"But would this man be free? Can the feeling of our liberty this feeling which is so clear and so distinct and so vivid as to persuade us that we are the authors of our actions, be conciliated with this hypothesis? If it removes the difficulty which attends the conception of the action of the soul on the body, on the other hand it leaves untouched that which meets us in endeavouring to conceive the action of the body on the soul." Huxley quoting Charles Bonnet
759 "The Quest for Animal Consciousness Andrea Nani, Clare M. Eddy, Andrea E. Cavanna, MD, Ph.D."
762 A list of 14 "properties of consciousness". None of these seems important to me except the last one: "knowing function"
773 "Consciousness and Intelligence in Mammals: Complexity thresholds David Deamer"
775 The three postulates chosen by Deamer are fair enough. They define the box to which most scientists confine their inquiry. They are equivalent to considering the brain-as-computer with consciousness somehow (as yet completely unexplained) emerging from the activity of the brain. Since this approach has so far proven to be sterile, it may be time to think outside that box and postulate a seat of consciousness outside the brain and a (as yet completely unexplained) communication path between that seat and the brain.
775 "If small amounts of such chemicals interacting with neurons can reversibly affect consciousness, it seems inescapable that the mechanisms underlying consciousness most likely involve biochemical and physical processes occurring at the level of cortical neurons and their interactions with one another." If small amounts of certain chemicals interacting with the electronic components of a cell phone can reversibly affect the normal function of the cell phone it does not prove that the mechanisms underlying the voice on the other end are entirely accounted for by the components contained within the cell phone case.
776 "Imagine that somehow a functioning laptop computer could be transported back in time to Los Alamos in 1943, ... They would have been astonished ... their collective genius would be baffled by this seeming miracle. I think that we are like those scientists when today we attempt to understand how the phenomenon of consciousness emerges from nervous function in the brain." Yes! Now extend the analogy to include radio, and go back to a time before Maxwell, and you should see the possibility for consciousness to literally be seated in another world.
779 "..the connectome, which consists of the white matter connections between different regions of the brain."
782 "Mirror Self-Recognition on Earth Thomas Suddendorf, Ph.D.”
788 "Cetaceans and Primates: Convergence in Intelligence and Self-Awareness Lori Marino"
793 "In human language, syntax allows for the combination of words into an infinite number of possibilities." An all too common error.
805 "Consciousness in Cephalopods? Jennifer Mather, Ph.D."
810 Information flow diagram for conscious directed behavior.
820 "Can Machines be Murdered? Alex Miller Tate, Rory Scott, Andrea Eugenio Cavanna"
822 " seems highly implausible to suggest that a scientist or engineer could construct an immaterial mind or "soul" of the kind a dualist claims is possessed by humans." How so? Is it not possible that a physical communication link could exist between a material brain and a non-material mind? (Think of the physical radio communication link between a material cell phone and a conscious human on the other end of the "line"). Nothing about this model is implausible.
823 "Given our knowledge of the physical world, there seems to be no room "for a distinct and independent psychological level of nature"" It seems possible that quantum physics could provide that "room" in the ostensible "random" outcomes of state reduction as well as in the effects of quantum entanglement. Both of these suggest "another world" in which effective variables and mechanisms may be "hidden".
823 "..nature is "layered into a unitary system of laws and patterns of causal organization"" In my opinion this putative causal closure has a big gap in it due to quantum indeterminacy.
827 "..a human's consciousness is the only permanent feature of its existence." How can this claim stand considering the loss of consciousness during sleep, anesthesia, etc.?
833 "Consciousness and Quantum Measurement: New Empirical Data York H. Dobyns, Ph.D."
833 "..a specific state of human consciousness has been observed to disrupt remotely the spatial superposition of photon states in a Michelson interferometer, detectably reducing the level of interference between the two beam paths. This suggests that, at the very least, the instrument is serving as a remote detector for the brain state corresponding to the experimentally induced state of consciousness."
834 Good description of the various interpretations of the quantum measurement problem
836 "..this experiment...seems to have shown detectable physical consequences of a human subject's mental state in a physically separated, isolated, and shielded experimental system."
837 "It is, of course, somewhat unexpected that whatever physical changes the subjects are inducing in their brains by entering a state of focused attention should have an effect on instrumentation several meters away and heavily shielded."
838 "..known physical effects are entirely capable of circumventing methods of isolation, separation, or shielding which naive physical intuition might expect to be adequate to protect an experimental system from outside influences." To me this is highly suggestive of the possible existence of higher dimensional structures and processes.
838 "..if these preliminary findings are confirmed, it would follow that at the very least we now know how to build an instrument to detect remotely the presence of one particular cognitive state in a human being, and that the physical mechanism mediating this detection is not yet understood." He is correct in saying "cognitive state" instead of "brain state".
840 "Consciousness and Quantum Physics: A Deconstruction of the Topic Gordon Globus, M.D."
844 "So Being, which is to replace consciousness, can be precisely specified. Ontologically primary is distinctionless abground, and Being is secondarily dis-closed—appears—in virtue of an action on the abground, an action that unfolds." This could be interpreted in terms of Beon Theory: "Being" = Beon, "abground" = raw energy, "an action" = Aeon-Raw Energy collision.
844 "Leibniz did not doubt that there is in fact a transcendent world bestowed through God's love. "God produces substances from nothing," Leibniz...states in the Theodicy. The worlds in parallel of monads are in "pre-established harmony" with the transcendent world God thinks into being."
847 "Logic of Quantum Mechanics and Phenomenon of Consciousness Michael B. Mensky"
853 "3.2 Extension of the Everett's Interpretation Starting with the above mentioned formulation (that classical alternatives are separated in consciounness), the present author proposed (Menskii, 2000) to accept a stronger statement: consciousness is nothing else than separation of the alternatives."
853 "...the formulation "alternatives are separated in consciousness" (accepted in one of the possible formulations of EI) includes two primary (not definable) concepts, "consciousness" and "alternative separation". These concepts have no good definitions. One may object that many different definitions have been proposed for the notion "consciousness". This is right, but all these definitions concern in fact mental and sensual processes in brain rather than "consciousness as such", while the latter (more fundamental) notion has no good definition."
853 "If consciousness = separation (of the alternatives from each other), then absence of consciousness = absence of separation.

"Therefore, turning off consciousness (in sleeping, trance or meditation) opens access to all classical alternatives put together, without separation between them."
857 "Instead of "consciousness" in EEC we have now "classical perceiving of quantum reality" which means that the alternative classical realities (forming the state of the quantum world) are perceived separately from each other." Stylus Guy
857 "...from this point of view "existing" and "living" are different concepts. Important difference is that existing (evolution in time) of the inanimate matter is determined by reasons while living of the living beings is partly determined also by goals (first of all the goal of survival)."
857 "This theory shows that a conceptual bridge between the material (described by natural sciences) and the ideal (treated by the humanities and spiritual doctrines) does exist."
860 "A quantum Physical Effect of Consciousness Shan Gao
860 "...consciousness is not emergent but a fundamental feature of the universe."
862 "The distinguishability of nonorthogonal states will reveal a distinct quantum physical effect of consciousness, which is lacking for physical measuring systems without consciousness."
865 "Consciousness is the most familiar phenomenon. Yet it is also the hardest to explain."
865 "It is widely believed that the physical world is causally closed, i.e., that there is a purely physical explanation for the occurrence of every physical event and the explanation does not refer to any consciousness property..." How can this be claimed in the face of random state vector collapse?
865 "Accordingly, consciousness does have a causal efficacy in the physical world when considering the fundamental quantum processes." Yes!
866 "...the consciousness property cannot be reducible or emergent but be a fundamental property of substance. It should be not only possessed by the conscious beings, but also possessed by atoms as well as physical measuring devices. The difference only lies in the conscious content."
869 "The Conscious Observer in the Quantum Experiment Fred Kuttner and Bruce Rosenblum
877 "Does Quantum Mechanics Require A Conscious Observer? Michael Nauenberg
877 "Quantum mechanics is a statistical theory that determines the probabilities for the outcome of a physical process when its initial state has been determined."
883 "Consciousness Vectors Steven Bodovitz
891 "Quantum Physics, Advanced Waves and Consciousness Antonella Vannini Ph.D, and Ulisse Di Corpo
891 "...entropy (from Greek en=diverge, tropos=tendency),..."
895 "The Law of syntropy" The opposite of entropy
896 "While entropy is a universal law which leads towards the disintegration of all types of organization, syntropy is the opposite law which attracts living systems towards forms of organization which are always more complex and harmonic..."
904 "The Macro-Objectification Problem and Conscious Perceptions GianCarlo Ghirardi"
906 "...the eigenstates of an observable yield an orthogonal system of axes for the space itself."
924 "Consciousness and the Quantum Don N. Page, Ph.D."
926 "A quantum state may be regarded as a positive linear functional σ on the quantum operators, a rule for assigning a complex number to each quantum operator that is called its expectation value in that quantum state."
927 "I regard the basic conscious entities to be the conscious experiences themselves,...and because I doubt that these conscious experiences are arranged in any strictly defined sequences that one might define to be minds if they did exist, my framework has sensations without minds and hence may be labeled Mindless Sensationalism"
928 "One can summarize this by saying that Sensible Quantum Mechanics or Mindless Sensationalism is given by the following three basic postulates or axioms...Quantum World Axiom...Conscious World Axiom...Psycho-Physical Parallelism Axiom"
928 "I am making the more restrictive hypothesis that the set M of all conscious perceptions p is a countable discrete set."
930 "Part (3) [of a generalized quantum theory] includes the rules for extracting the probabilities of observations from the quantum state." I wonder if Stafford's Theorem applies here.
933 "The Quantum Hologram And the Nature of Consciousness Edgar D. Mitchell, Sc.D., and Robert Staretz, M.S."
937 "At each level, the organism has access to the perceptual mechanisms of the levels below. Clearly, at each level the organism is utilizing information (e.g. patterns of energy and matter) obtained from its environment. This implies that there is a process (e.g. consciousness) that uses and assigns meaning to this information. Note that "meaning" is also information that places the perceived information into context for use by the organism."
938 "...evidence ...suggest[s] that brains store information holographically (e.g. stored as images contained within interference patterns)."
938 This proposal for how the brain might process information holographically suggests a similar mechanism to explain how beons might process information in the early cosmogony of BT. The standing wave of the interference pattern could supply the missing memory substrate in my own ideas of cosmogony.
962 "This universe seems, in some sense, to be a living, evolving, adapting universe that utilizes information to organize itself and to create ever increasing levels of complexity."
966 "Quantum Reality and Mind Henry P. Stapp, Ph.D."
969 " is nigh on incomprehensible that so few philosophers and non-physicist scientists entertain today, more than eight decades after the downfall of classical physics, the idea that the physicalist conception of nature, based on the invalidated classical physical theory, might be profoundly wrong in ways highly relevant to the mind-matter problem."
970 "The physical aspects of quantum mechanics are ... more like mental things than like material things.

"Furthermore, a quantum state represents probabilities. Probabilities are not matter-like. They are mathematical connections that exist outside the actual realities to which they pertain. They involve mind-like computations and evaluations: weights assigned by a mental or mind-like process.

"Quantum mechanics is therefore dualistic.."
970 "In these ways orthodox quantum mechanics is completely concordant with the defining characteristics of Cartesian dualism.

"Yet, in stark contrast to classical mechanics, in which the physically described aspect is matter-like, the physically described aspect of quantum mechanics is mind-like! Thus both parts of the quantum Cartesian duality are ontologically mind-like.

"In short, orthodox quantum mechanics is Cartesian dualistic at the pragmatic/operational level, but mentalistic on the ontological level.

"This conclusion that nature is fundamentally mind-like is hardly new. But it arises here not from some deep philosophical analysis, or religious insight, but directly from an examination of the causal structure of our basic scientific theory."
971 Block universe vs. unfolding universe (coral?)
972 "Within orthodox quantum mechanics meaningful human freedom need not be an illusion."
972 Von Neumann's formulation of Quantum Mechanics.
975 "In orthodox quantum mechanics, no elements of quantum randomness enter into man's choice. ... Human choices enter orthodox quantum mechanics in a way not determined by a combination of the deterministic and random elements represented in the theory."
976 "Quantum Physics and the Multiplicity of Mind: Split-Brains, Fragmented Minds, Dissociation, Quantum Consciousness R. Joseph, Ph.D."
977 "In quantum physics, nature and reality are represented by the quantum state. The electromagnetic field of the quantum state is the fundamental entity, the continuum that constitutes the basic oneness and unity of all things."
977 "...reality, the physical world, is created by the process of observing, measuring, and knowing (Heisenberg, 1955)”
978 "...a knot of energy that is a kind of blemish in the continuum of the quantum field. This quantum knot bunches up at the point of observation, at the assigned value of measurement."
978 "Knowing and not knowing, are the result of interactions between the mind and concentrations of energy that emerge and disappear back into the electromagnetic quantum field."
980 "By virtue of the temporal development of the dynamical variables the state vector decomposes naturally into orthogonal vectors, reflecting a continual splitting of the universe into a multitude of mutually unobservable but equally real worlds..."
1001 NDE accounts. His explanation doesn't account for the ability to see the things that are reported. There is obviously, at least to me, that there is a component of mind that is literally and really outside of the brain. How can he escape this conclusion?
1011 "SETI by Entanglement Michael Ibison and George Hathaway"
1026 "Evolution of Consciousness in the Ancient Corners of the Cosmos R. Joseph, Ph.D."
1063 "Does the Universe have Cosmological Memory? Does This Imply Cosmic Consciousness? Walter J. Christensen Jr."
1064 "By consciousness we mean: any macroscopic or microscopic system that operates through the use of both memory and choice."
1065 "The approach taken in this paper, rests on three assumptions:

"1) SLT [Second Law of Thermodynamics,] is the fundamental principle of space-time. ...

"2) Memory and entropy are deeply related aspects of each other, in much the same way that various forms of energy are related and can be converted into one form or the other without loss.

"3) Any system converting entropy into memory, or memory into entropy, which also involves choice (such as opening or closing a gate), thus contributes to running the system, we characterizes [sic] as having intelligence or consciousness. If such a system is the universe itself, or multiverses, we say cosmic consciousness is involved [in (sic)] the operation of the cosmology."
1071 "...if we assume the virtual particles are in one-to-one correspondence with the set of real numbers R, rather than the restricted set of natural numbers N, then the intelligent creature will never run out of information to keep the perpetual cosmic machine running." This assumption is unnecessary, and IMHO it is destructive. It brings on antinomies. Even if the set of particles is finite, the demon need never run out because the finite set can perpetually be enlarged without ever becoming "infinite".
1077 "Classical Anthropic Everett Model: Indeterminacy in a Preordained Multiverse Brandon Carter"
1082 "...mental feelings and perceptions correspond to physical states of animate brains that are roughly localizable on time parametrized [sic] world lines of the animals concerned within the single world "strands"." Stylus guy.
1087 "Gia Universalis Samanta Pino, Ph.D., and Ernesto Di Mauro, Ph.D."
1096 "Electromagnetic Bases of the Universality of the Characteristics of Consciousness: Quantitative Support Michael A. Persinger, Ph.D." This may have implications for the brain-beon communication link.
1104 "Consciousness: The Fifth Influence Michel Cabanac, Rémi Cabanac, the late Harold T. Hammel"
1119 "How Consciousness Becomes the Physical Universe Menas Kafatos, Ph.D., Rudolph E. Tanzi, Ph.D., and Deepak Chopra, M.D."
1126 "Our approach, positing consciousness as more fundamental than anything physical, is the most reasonable alternative: Trying to account for mind as arising from physical systems in the end leads (at best) to a claim that mathematics is the underlying "stuff" of the universe..."

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