The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

19. "Historically, they have often simply stayed in the departments of philosophy from which so many of the special sciences have been spawned."

20. "No longer will his researches usually be embodied in books addressed, like Franklin’s Experiments . . . on Electricity or Darwin’s Origin of Species, to anyone who might be interested in the subject matter of the field. Instead they will usually appear as brief articles addressed only to professional colleagues, the men whose knowledge of a shared paradigm can be assumed and who prove to be the only ones able to read the papers addressed to them."

24. "Mopping-up operations are what engage most scientists throughout their careers. They constitute what I am here calling normal science."

24. "that enterprise seems an attempt to force nature into the preformed and relatively inflexible box that the paradigm supplies. No part of the aim of normal science is to call forth new sorts of phenomena; indeed those that will not fit the box are often not seen at all."

44. "Indeed, the existence of a paradigm need not even imply that any full set of rules exists."

46. "That scientists do not usually ask or debate what makes a particular problem or solution legitimate tempts us to suppose that, at least intuitively, they know the answer. But it may only indicate that neither the question nor the answer is felt to be relevant to their research."

51. "An investigator who hoped to learn something about what scientists took the atomic theory to be asked a distinguished physicist and an eminent chemist whether a single atom of helium was or was not a molecule. Both answered without hesitation, but their answers were not the same. For the chemist the atom of helium was a molecule because it behaved like one with respect to the kinetic theory of gases. For the physicist, on the other hand, the helium atom was not a molecule because it displayed no molecular spectrum."

77. "once it has achieved the status of paradigm, a scientific theory is declared invalid only if an alternate candidate is available to take its place. No process yet disclosed by the historical study of scientific development at all resembles the methodological stereotype of falsification by direct comparison with nature."

80. "truth and falsity are uniquely and unequivocally determined by the confrontation of statement with fact."

80. "science students accept theories on the authority of teacher and text, not because of evidence."

84. "Wolfgang Pauli, in the months before Heisenberg’s paper on matrix mechanics pointed the way to a new quantum theory, wrote to a friend, “At the moment physics is again terribly confused. In any case, it is too difficult for me, and I wish I had been a movie comedian or something of the sort and had never heard of physics.” That testimony is particularly impressive if contrasted with Pauli’s words less than five months later: “Heisenberg’s type of mechanics has again given me hope and joy in life. To be sure it does not supply the solution to the riddle, but I believe it is again possible to march forward.”"

90. "What the nature of that final stage is—how an individual invents (or finds he has invented) a new way of giving order to data now all assembled—must here remain inscrutable and may be permanently so."

92. "scientific revolutions are here taken to be those non-cumulative developmental episodes in which an older paradigm is replaced in whole or in part by an incompatible new one."

92. "Political revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, often restricted to a segment of the political community, that existing institutions have ceased adequately to meet the problems posed by an environment that they have in part created." This describes President Trump's success.

96. "the view of science-as-cumulation is entangled with a dominant epistemology that takes knowledge to be a construction placed directly upon raw sense data by the mind."

96. "Cumulative acquisition of unanticipated novelties proves to be an almost non-existent exception to the rule of scientific development."

99. "Einstein’s theory can be accepted only with the recognition that Newton’s was wrong. Today this remains a minority view."

108. "Space, in contemporary physics, is not the inert and homogenous substratum employed in both Newton’s and Maxwell’s theories; some of its new properties are not unlike those once attributed to the ether; we may someday come to know what an electric displacement is."

116. "without the aid of a telescope, the Chinese had systematically recorded the appearance of sunspots centuries before these were seen by Galileo and his contemporaries."

123. "Scientists then often speak of the “scales falling from the eyes” or of the “lightning flash” that “inundates” a previously obscure puzzle, enabling its components to be seen in a new way that for the first time permits its solution. On other occasions the relevant illumination comes in sleep.13 No ordinary sense of the term ‘interpretation’ fits these flashes of intuition through which a new paradigm is born."

136. "the analysis now required will begin to indicate one of the aspects of scientific work that most clearly distinguishes it from every other creative pursuit except perhaps theology."

136. "As the source of authority, I have in mind principally textbooks of science together with both the popularizations and the philosophical works modeled on them."

136. "To fulfill their function they need not provide authentic information about the way in which those bases were first recognized and then embraced by the profession. In the case of textbooks, at least, there are even good reasons why, in these matters, they should be systematically misleading."

137. "they have to be rewritten in the aftermath of each scientific revolution, and, once rewritten, they inevitably disguise not only the role but the very existence of the revolutions that produced them."

140. "Those theories, of course, do “fit the facts,” but only by transforming previously accessible information into facts that, for the preceding paradigm, had not existed at all."

141. "Like ‘time,’ ‘energy,’ ‘force,’ or ‘particle,’ the concept of an element is the sort of textbook ingredient that is often not invented or discovered at all."

143. "What is the process by which a new candidate for paradigm replaces its predecessor? Any new interpretation of nature, whether a discovery or a theory, emerges first in the mind of one or a few individuals."

143. "Invariably their attention has been intensely concentrated upon the crisis-provoking problems; usually, in addition, they are men so young or so new to the crisis-ridden field that practice has committed them less deeply than most of their contemporaries to the world view and rules determined by the old paradigm." Maybe an old un-trained guy who has been thinking about the problem all his life could fill the bill.

144. "in normal science, the research worker is a solver of puzzles, not a tester of paradigms."

144. "In the sciences the testing situation never consists, as puzzle-solving does, simply in the comparison of a single paradigm with nature. Instead, testing occurs as part of the competition between two rival paradigms for the allegiance of the scientific community."

167. "One of the strongest, if still unwritten, rules of scientific life is the prohibition of appeals to heads of state or to the populace at large in matters scientific." This seems to have broken down in the matter of climate.

174. "the term ‘paradigm’ is used in two different senses. On the one hand, it stands for the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques, and so on shared by the members of a given community." In TDB Theory these "members" are either all part of a single node of the hierarchy or they occupy different nodes at the same level and are in communication with one another.

174. "On the other, it denotes one sort of element in that constellation, the concrete puzzle-solutions which, employed as models or examples, can replace explicit rules as a basis for the solution of the remaining puzzles of normal science." In TDB Theory these "puzzle-solutions" are literally sets of specific solutions to the differential equation of Stafford's Theorem. Each such set establishes the laws of physics which then obtain in the constructed "known" node(s), or world(s), one level below in the hierarchy. The knowers cannot violate these laws and they can learn about, and thus know, the consequences of the known world(s) by information flow consistent with the laws of pysics in both the known world and the knower's world.

175. "Not all circularities are vicious"

183. "all models have similar functions. Among other things they supply the group with preferred or permissible analogies and metaphors. By doing so they help to determine what will be accepted as an explanation and as a puzzle-solution;"

184. "judgments of simplicity, consistency, plausibility, and so on often vary greatly from individual to individual."

185. "the application of values is sometimes considerably affected by the features of individual personality and biography that differentiate the members of the group."

186. "Though both solid-state and field-theoretic physicists share the Schrödinger equation, only its more elementary applications are common to both groups."

190. "nature and words are learned together."

195. "the knowledge embedded in the stimulus-to-sensation route remains tacit." This is an important admission, IMHO. TDB Theory offers a simple explanation by locating sensation only with the knower and stimulus only with the known--the former outside our manifold and the latter inside our manifold.

205. "There is, I think, no theory-independent way to reconstruct phrases like ‘really there’; the notion of a match between the ontology of a theory and its “real” counterpart in nature now seems to me illusive in principle."

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